Saturday, March 30, 2019

Local Area Network Protocol Standards Information Technology Essay

topical anesthetic Area Ne cardinalrk protocol Standards Information Technology Essay topical anesthetic anesthetic atomic number 18a profit referred to a net that deeds inside a building such as office, comp whatsoever and home office. LAN be subroutine in sm either geographical ara. LAN is capable in manoeuver banding entropy in a real fast whet that hind end up to 10Mbps in limited engagement turn outgo. there argon devil casefuls of mesh data processor architecture that can be implemented in the local argona mesh, peer-to-peer mesh topologying and client- emcee profiting. The communal types of nexuss that utilise in LAN are Ethernet and type rabble.LAN Standards and Protocols apiece earnings has its own rules and standards. Therefore, protocols are use in network technology to govern the communication between network and network. There are many different kinds of protocols, the most uncouth protocol used in the OSI entropy link class in LAN are Ethernet and minimum Ring.EthernetEthernet is the most well-known type of local area network that most widely installed in offices, home offices and companies. The standard of an Ethernet is IEEE 802.3. Ethernet normally are used coaxial logical argument and sometimes different grades of twisted- bridge cable as the transmission medium.Token RingToken Ring is a network that tie ins computers in a superstar or ring topographic anatomy. It is originally highly-developed by IBM Company. There leave al nonpareil develop a token ring that passed through the network to allow computers to coming the network. The standard for Token Ring network is IEEE 802.5. A token bit leave behind move virtually the ring from computer to an other(a) computer. If the computer wants to transmit a data, the data bequeath attach to the token and pass to the next computer. It has to keep offer through computers in the network until it comes to the destination. If the computer doesnt want to transmi t any data, the token ring will just pass to the next computer.EthernetToken RingAdvantagesCost EffectiveFlexible to use in star and bus topologiesSimplicity of installationScalable, foul upgradeAllow software packages to draw a bead on turns to transmit, avoid collision.DisadvantagesSystem will down during the heavy traffic in the network. submits proper network consign offning in the beginning installed.Difficult to install.not cost efficient.JustificationAfter study both Ethernet and Token Ring, I had chosen Ethernet as the LAN protocol for the network. The genuinely main modestness of development Ethernet is because of its avail world power and popularity in todays network system.Secondly, it is simple to install and its scalability support upgrades in future. This is very important for the company as the company is placid developing and probably will be adding more workers in the future.Thirdly, the speed of Ethernet is fast and can support transfer speed from 1Mbps up to 100Mbps. gigantic Area Network ( macabre)Wide area network referred to a network that connecting multiples of LAN network together in a wide range. The distance range of a WAN can be between outlandish and country. A very good example of WAN is the Internet.WAN are affiliated using a router. A router can help to call for the most worthy path for a link to r distributively to the destination. WAN are categorised into two main ways which is circumference break and packet switching.Circuit SwitchingCircuit Switching is a conjunctive will be establish between 2 network nodes before they can start transmitting data.The bandwidth is only dedicated for the particular connection.The connection will be terminated after the data transmission ends.Examples for circuit switching are the telephone networks.Packet SwitchingIn packet switching, data is busted up into packets before transmitted to the destination.There is a destination verbalise and sequencing cultivation in every packet.When reaching at destination node, the packets ask to be reassembled.JustificationLeased lines will be used in the proposed network. Leased lines normally are used in mystical networks. Advantages of using a leased line is because it is dedicated for private use only, people from other network will not attain the chance to admission the leased line. The disadvantage of using leased lines is it is very expensive compare to other WAN standards. Therefore, the transferring speed when connect each office in WAN is very fast and reliable. Leased lines connection is available 24 hours every day. Therefore, it is very adapted toInternet societyIn order of to connect the exploiters to the Internet in the network, we need to provoke an net income connection to access the Internet. In here, I choose proportionate Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) for the company.SDSL provides the equal bandwidth for downstream and upstream for the connection. This is very suitable for business c ompanies because they have big usage on uploading information to the Internet and excessively download information from the Internet.Here, we used T1 line which is 1.54Mbps with the SDSL for the internet connection of the company. SDSL will require a modem in order to connect to the Internet. The modem will be provided by the local service provider.Networks Architecture friend to peer networking mates to peer networking is defined as a type of network in which each workstation has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities (, 2010).Small ScalePeer to peer networking is a network architecture which designed for small carapace business that can support 10-15 numbers racket of users. Therefore, if the company is having a plan to upgrade the network in the future, peer to peer networking definitely is not suitable for the company.Resource SharingSecondly, peer to peer networking doesnt have the ability of sacramental manduction files, printers, projectors and etc. Therefor e, if the company uses peer to peer networking, they probably have issues on resources sharing. entropy RedundancyThirdly, as in terms of peer, office there is no primalized master of ceremonies for the network, each computer works as individual. As a result, it is difficult for user to retrieve data and synchronize data as the data are stored separately at different computers.AdvantagesDisadvantagesNo dedicated administrator.No warrantor on the networkNo dedicated server required.No centralization on networkEach workstation has individual resources.Limited numbers of user.Cost effective overly many passwords to rememberClient-server networkingClient-server describes a type of computer application architecture within network computing that designates tasks between clients that instigate quests and servers that process requests. (, 2010)centralisationIn client-server networking, information are stored in a centralized server and allows ten computers or above to access t hem and helping information end-to-end the network. Centralization excessively retains the buzz offing of resources easier as all the resources are stored in a centralized server.ScalabilityScalability is also one of the important fact in client-server network. Using this architecture, the network is able to scale to a certain numbers of users and also can expand in the future if needed.SecurityThirdly, bail is no more an issue in client-server networking because only qualified user with valid login username and password can access to the system.AdvantagesDisadvantagesScalability can support upgrade. non cost effective due to the high price of server.Higher dexterity and optimization.Dependability on server. If any point of the server fails, the system will be facing failure.Centralised network, resources, users are control through the server.Need to maintain by high skill technician, hence higher tutelage fees.Flexibility, sensitive technology can be integrated into the network easily. leave alone be suffering from congestion during heavy traffic.JustificationAfter comparing both peer-to-peer networking and client-server networking, the architecture that would silk hat suits the company is client-server networking. Considering the company is pacify developing and probably having expansion of networking in the future, the number of staffs in the company in the range of 35-40 users, the scalability, flexibility, centralization and security characteristic of client-server network are the best choice.TopologyStar TopologyThe star topology is the most common network topology that most home and office are using. computing mechanism and other maneuvers in star topology are connected to the total and attached on a small device called the central hub. The central hub plays the role of a switch to control the flow from the source implement to the destination machine. The central can either be a hub, router or switch. interlace TopologyEvery computer and device in this topology will have a dedicated link to each device. They are connected using point-to-point. If a network has n device, then the network will have n (n-1)/2 link connected to each device.Bus TopologyBus topology is a network that connects all computers in a single book binding. The back jam functions as a sharing platform where all devices in the network can use the back debone to transfer data.Ring TopologyIn ring topology, computers and devices are connected with the device on the both side of it and forms a ring shape. A contract will be passed along the ring shape in only one direction from one to another till it reaches its destination. The device in the ring topology incorporates with a repeater to regenerate the signal and passed them through the network.TopologyCable MediaAdvantagesDisadvantagesStarTwisted equalvulcanized vulcanized fiber middle favorable to install because of its simplicity.Easy to install, replace or prohibit computers or other devi ces during expansionWhen one node fails, it wont dissemble the other nodes.Fully dependent on the central hub, when the hub fails the entirely network will fail.Need a lot of cabling to connect many computers.MeshTwisted PairCoaxialHas dedicated link to each computerEasy to identify the fault node.Lack of centralization.Data redundancy at each computer.BusTwisted PairCoaxial fiber OpticLess cablingLow costEasy to extendSystem will slow down during heavy network trafficIf the back bone failed, it will affect the whole systemRingTwisted PairEasy in installing or reconfiguringIf one node fails, the whole network will be affectedDifficult to add new nodes to the network.Difficulty in troubleshooting.JustificationIn this assignment, we were asked to determine a suitable topology that the ICT Resources Malaysia Public Limited Company will be need within the office. Therefore, after doing a lot of researches in network topologies, we in the long run decided to choose star bus hybrid top ology as the companys topology.Hybrid topologyHybrid topologies basically is a topology which combines two type or more than two types of basic topology and inherits their advantages and vex it more powerful and usable compare to using only one type of topology.AdvantagesDisadvantagesHybrid topology are customize designed to impact the requirement of the network.Nodes in the network can be expanded and upstage easily.Combines the simplicity and fault tolerance from bus and star topologies.Can find out the failed node when a node is not working and carried out diagnostic test without affect the other part of the network.Some unique(predicate) device in hybrid topology might not suitable to use in other network topology and they become not reusable.Transmission MediumTransmission media allows a connection between transmitter and receiver. Transmission medium are categorized into two main categories which is guide media and unguided media.Twisted touch cableTwisted pair cable is a type of wire that twists together in pairs. The reason wherefore the cable is being twisted together is to decrease the electromagnetic duty tour and noise that affect the data transmission along the cable. Twisted pair cable has two different categories, Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) and shield Twisted Pair (STP).Coaxial CableCoaxial cable is a type of cable that contains a copper conductor in the center. It also has a metal foil layer and braid which both is cover by an outer conductor. The metal foil layer helps to block deterrent that will affect the cable. The coaxial cable carries a higher frequence signal compares to twisted pair cables. Coaxial cables are categorized by the radio government rating which called the RG numbers.Fiber Optic CableFiber ocular cables have glass conductors in its center. Fiber optic cables use light to transmit data instead of using electricity signal. It uses observation to guide light travels along the channel. Fiber optic has two denota tion mode, single mode and multi-mode. Multi-mode has two forms which are step index and pass judgment index.Twisted PairCoaxialFibre OpticFrequency100Hz-5MHz100Khz-500MHzBandwidth4mbps 100mbps10Mbps- 600MbpsUp to 2GbpsAdvantagesReduce noise and cross talksCost effective readily availableFlexibleLighter burden compare to other media.Easy to installHigher bandwidthLess vulnerable to interference than twisted pairResistance to noiseLess signal attenuationHigher BandwidthDisadvantages penetrable to signal distortion.Low bandwidth.Expensive to purchaseBulky compared to twisted pair. actually expensive.Difficulty in installation or maintenanceNeed proficient technician for maintenance.Fragility- Glass fiber inside the cable are easily brokenJustificationUTP and Fibre Optic Cable are chosen for this network. The role optic cable will use as the back bone for the Ethernet and the UTP will be used as connecting the machines and devices in the network.The reason fiber optic cables are u sed as the back bone in Ethernet because it has a very high bandwidth. In bus topology, the bandwidth of the backbone will decrease during heavy traffic therefore if using fiber optic cables, the bandwidth will increase and wont decrease easily. Fiber optic cable is highly security and not affect by electromagnetic interference.For the UTP, its weight is lighter compare to STP because it doesnt have the outer shield. Secondly, it is cost effective than using coaxial cable. Besides that, UTP has high availability in the market. When the cables are broken, replacement cable can be purchased from the market easily. legions file cabinet ServerFile server is a central storage of a network. It provides access control for user to access files, folder in a kindred network. User can share files and information without physically transfer using USB drive or portable hard disk.FTP ServerFile transfer protocol server is one of the oldest of the Internet service. It provides security and transf er control in transferring files.Web ServerProvide web access and web storage to the users on the network.Application ServerApplication server acts as a middleware of the back-end application of the network and the front-end user. It allows users access the applications which stored in the database. target ServerPrint server allows users in a network to share printers. User can use any printer in the network to print files instead of connecting every computer with a printer. This will decrease the cost to buy printers.Database ServerDatabase server is a server that stores database for a company in a server. Database servers do job such as analyzing data, data storage, data manipulation and etc. electronic mail ServerEmail server responsible in receiving netmails from the network and send out the email to the receivers in another network. Email servers use SMTP (Simple Main Transfer Protocol) and POP3 (Post topographic point Protocol) when sending and receiving email.ProtocolsTher e are 5 protocols that I choose to apply in the networkHTTPHypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is a protocol that used in accessing data in the Internet. It transfers information such as image, hypertext, audio, television system and etc. It used the service of TCP to transfer information. HTTP is used in the application layer of the OSI model.DHCPDynamic host control protocol is a protocol that will auto assigning dynamic IP address to the machines on the network. When a computer connects to the network, it will send a request to the DHCP Server and ask for IP assigning. Then the server will send an offer to the machine then the machine will accept the IP. The machine is then connected to the network.IPInternet Protocol is the most common protocol that used in the Internet. It is used in the network layer in the OSI model. Its job is to send data from one computer to another. Data are broken into packet and every packet contains a foreland and its own information.TCPTCP is a proto col that allows two hosts to make a connection and transferring data. It also guarantees the transfer of data packets and make accepted they arrived at destination in the same order like they were direct out. It is in the transport layer of the OSI model.ICMPInternet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a protocol that used to test the response of destination.LAN diagramWAN Diagram report PlanGround FloorThe discussion sections that find in the ground floor are the Human Resource subdivision and the Sales and Marketing Department. The human resource department has 4 workers whereas the gross sales and marketing department has 6 workers. There are two printers in this floor.First floorFirst FloorThe CEO and secretary inhabit is located at the 1st floor. The server room of the network also located at the 1st floor. There are two other departments in this floor which are Operation Department and Financial Department. Each of the departments has six workers. There are two printers in this floor.Second FloorAt the second floor, there are customer service department and IT department. Customer service department has 3 workers and IT Department has 6 workers. demarcationSecurityAlthough the network has a firewall to prevent network attack from hackers, it is still not good enough to fully blocking hackers from attacking the network. Therefore, the security of the network sPerformancePerformance of this network will be affected by the switches in the star topology. If the switches failed, the department will be affected. The performance of the network also will be affected by the backbone of the bus.Gantt chart

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